Authorised persons to transmit,supply,etc.,electricity
12.No person shall
- transmit electricity; or
- distribute electricity; or
- undertake trading in electricity,
unless he is authorised to do so by a licence issued under section 14, or is exempt
under section 13.
Power to exempt
The Appropriate Commission may, on the recommendations, of the Appropriate Government,
in accordance with the national policy formulated under section 5 and in public
interest, direct, by notification that subject to such conditions and restrictions,
if any, and for such period or periods, as may be specified in the notification,
the provisions of section 12 shall not apply to any local authority, Panchayat Institution,
users’ association, co-operative societies, nongovernmental organizations, or franchisees:
Grant of Licence
The Appropriate Commission may, on application made to it under section 15, grant
any person licence to any person -
- to transmit electricity as a transmission licensee; or
- to distribute electricity as a distribution licensee; or
- to undertake trading in electricity as an electricity trader,
in any area which may be specified in the licence: Provided that any person engaged
in the business of transmission or supply of electricity under the provisions of
the repealed laws or any Act specified in the Schedule on or before the appointed
date shall be deemed to be a licensee under this Act for such period as may be stipulated
in the licence, clearance or approval granted to him under the repealed laws or
such Act specified in the Schedule, and the provisions of the repealed laws or such
Act specified in the Schedule in respect of such licence shall apply for a period
of one year from the date of commencement of this Act or such earlier period as
may be specified, at the request of the licensee, by the Appropriate Commission
and thereafter the provisions of this Act shall apply to such business: Provided
further that the Central Transmission Utility or the State Transmission Utility
shall be deemed to be a transmission licensee under this Act: Provided also that
in case an Appropriate Government transmits electricity or distributes electricity
or undertakes trading in electricity, whether before or after the commencement of
this Act, such Government shall be deemed to be a licensee under this Act, but shall
not be required to obtain a licence under this Act:
14 of 1948
Provided also that the Damodar Valley Corporation, established under sub-section
(1) of section 3 of the Damodar Valley Corporation Act, 1948, shall be deemed to
be a licensee under this Act but shall not be required to obtain a licence under
this Act and the provisions of the Damodar Valley Corporation Act, 1948, in so far
as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, shall continue to
apply to that Corporation: Provided also that the Government company or the company
referred to in sub-section (2) of section 131 of this Act and the company or companies
created in pursuance of the Acts specified in the Schedule, shall be deemed to be
a licensee under this Act: Provided also that the Appropriate Commission may grant
a licence to two or more persons for distribution of electricity through their own
distribution system within the same area, subject to the conditions that the applicant
for grant of licence within the same area, subject to the conditions that the applicant
for grant of licence within the same area shall, without prejudice to the other
conditions or requirements under this Act, comply with the additional requirements
(including the capital adequacy, credit-worthiness, or code of conduct) as may be
prescribed by the Central Government, and no such applicant who complies with all
the requirements for grant of licence, shall be refused grant of licence on the
ground that there already exists a licensee in the same area for the same purpose:
Provided also that in a case where a distribution licensee proposes to undertake
distribution of electricity for a specified area within his area of supply through
another person, that person shall not be required to obtain any separate licence
from the concerned State Commission and such distribution licensee shall be responsible
for distribution of electricity in his area of supply: Provided also that where
a person intends to generate and distribute electricity in a rural area to be notified
by the State Government, such person shall not require any licence for such generation
and distribution of electricity, but he shall comply with the measures which may
be specified by the Authority under section 53: Provided also that a distribution
licensee shall not require a licence to undertake trading in electricity.
Procedure for Grant of Licence
Conditions of licence.
- Every application under section 14 shall be made in such form and in such manner
as may be specified by the Appropriate Commission and shall be accompanied by such
fee as may be prescribed.
- Any person who has made an application for grant of licence shall, within seven
days after making such application, publish a notice of his application with such
particulars and in such manner as may be specified and a licence shall not be granted
- until the objections, if any, received by the Appropriate Commission in response
to publication of the application have been considered by it: Provided that no objection
shall be so considered unless it is received before the expiration of thirty days
from the date of the publication of such notice as aforesaid;
- until, in the case of an application for a licence for an area including the whole
or any part of any cantonment, aerodrome, fortress, arsenal, dockyard or camp or
of any building or place in the occupation of the Government for defence purposes,
the Appropriate Commission has ascertained that there is no objection to the grant
of the licence on the part of the Central Government.
- A person intending to act as a transmission licensee shall, immediately on making
the application, forward a copy of such application to the Central Transmission
Utility or the State Transmission Utility, as the case may be.
- The Central Transmission Utility or the State Transmission Utility, as the case
may be, shall, within thirty days after the receipt of the copy of the application
referred to in sub-section (3), send its recommendations, if any, to the Appropriate
Commission: Provided that such recommendations shall not be binding on the Commission.
- Before granting a licence under section 14, the Appropriate Commission shall -
- publish a notice in two such daily newspapers, as that Commission may consider necessary,
stating the name of the person to whom it proposes to issue the licence;
- consider all suggestions or objections and the recommendations, if any, of the Central
Transmission Utility or State Transmission Utility, as the case may be.
- Where a person makes an application under sub-section (1) of section 14 to act as
a licensee, the Appropriate Commission shall, as far as practicable, within ninety
days after receipt of such application, -
- issue a licence subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules and regulations
made thereunder; or
- reject the application for reasons to be recorded in writing if such application
does not conform to the provisions of this Act or the rules and regulations made
thereunder or the provisions of any other law for the time being in force: Provided
that no application shall be rejected unless the applicant has been given an opportunity
of being heard.
- The Appropriate Commission shall, immediately after issue of licence, forward a
copy of the licence to the Appropriate Government , Authority, local authority,
and to such other person as the Appropriate Commission considers necessary.
- A licence shall continue to be in force for a period of twentyfive years unless
such licence is revoked.
The Appropriate Commission may specify any general or specific conditions which
shall apply either to a licensee or class of licensees and such conditions shall
be deemed to be conditions of such licence: Provided that the Appropriate Commission
shall, within one year from the appointed date, specify any general or specific
conditions of licence applicable to the licensees referred to in the first, second,
third, fourth and fifth provisos to section 14 after the expiry of one year from
the commencement of this Act.
Licensee not to do certain things.
Amendment of licence
- No licensee shall, without prior approval of the Appropriate Commission, -
- undertake any transaction to acquire by purchase or takeover or otherwise, the utility
of any other licensee; or
- merge his utility with the utility of any other licensee: Provided that nothing
contained in this sub-section shall apply if the utility of the licensee is situate
in a State other than the State in which the utility referred to in clause (a) or
clause (b) is situate.
- Every licensee shall, before obtaining the approval under subsection (1), give not
less than one month’s notice to every other licensee who transmits or distributes,
electricity in the area of such licensee who applies for such approval.
- No licensee shall at any time assign his licence or transfer his utility, or any
part thereof, by sale, lease , exchange or otherwise without the prior approval
of the Appropriate Commission.
- Any agreement relating to any transaction specified in subsection
(1) or sub-section (3), unless made with, the prior approval of the
Appropriate Commission, shall be void.
Revocation of licence
- Where in its opinion the public interest so permits, the Appropriate Commission,
may, on the application of the licensee or otherwise, make such alterations and
amendments in the terms and conditions of a licence as it thinks fit: Revocation
of licence Provided that no such alterations or amendments shall be made except
with the consent of the licensee unless such consent has, in the opinion of the
Appropriate Commission, been unreasonably withheld.
- Before any alterations or amendments in the licence are made under this section,
the following provisions shall have effect, namely: -
- where the licensee has made an application under sub-section (1) proposing any alteration
or modifications in his licence, the licensee shall publish a notice of such application
with such particulars and in such manner as may be specified;
- in the case of an application proposing alterations or modifications in the area
of supply comprising the whole or any part of any cantonment, aerodrome, fortress,
arsenal, dockyard or camp or of any building or place in the occupation of the Government
for defence purposes, the Appropriate Commission shall not make any alterations
or modifications except with the consent of the Central Government;
- where any alterations or modifications in a licence are proposed to be made otherwise
than on the application of the licensee, the Appropriate Commission shall publish
the proposed alterations or modifications with such particulars and in such manner
as may be specified;
- the Appropriate Commission shall not make any alterations or modification unless
all suggestions or objections received within thirty days from the date of the first
publication of the notice have been considered.
Sale of utilities of licensees.
- If the Appropriate Commission, after making an enquiry, is satisfied that public
interest so requires, it may revoke a licence in any of the following cases, namely:
- where the licensee, in the opinion of the Appropriate Commission, makes wilful and
prolonged default in doing anything required of him by or under this Act or the
rules or regulations made thereunder;
- where the licensee breaks any of the terms or conditions of his licence the breach
of which is expressly declared by such licence to render it liable to revocation;
- where the licensee fails, within the period fixed in this behalf by his licence,
or any longer period which the Appropriate Commission may have granted therefor
- to show, to the satisfaction of the Appropriate Commission, that he is in a position
fully and efficiently to discharge the duties and obligations imposed on him by
his licence; or 15 Sale of utilities of licensees. and obligations imposed on him
by his licence; or
- to make the deposit or furnish the security, or pay the fees or other charges required
by his licence;
- where in the opinion of the Appropriate Commission the financial position of the
licensee is such that he is unable fully and efficiently to discharge the duties
and obligations imposed on him by his licence.
- Where in its opinion the public interest so requires, the Appropriate Commission
may, on application, or with the consent of the licensee, revoke his licence as
to the whole or any part of his area of distribution or transmission or trading
upon such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.
- No licence shall be revoked under sub-section (1) unless the Appropriate Commission
has given to the licensee not less than three months’notice, in writing, stating
the grounds on which it is proposed to revoke the licence, and has considered any
cause shown by the licensee within the period of that notice, against the proposed
- The Appropriate Commission may, instead of revoking a licence under sub-section
(1), permit it to remain in force subject to such further terms and conditions as
it thinks fit to impose, and any further terms or conditions so imposed shall be
binding upon and be observed by the licensee and shall be of like force and effect
as if they were contained in the licence.
- Where the Commission revokes a licence under this section, it shall serve a notice
of revocation upon the licensee and fix a date on which the revocation shall take
- Where an Appropriate Commission has given notice for revocation of licence under
sub-section (5), without prejudice to any penalty which may be imposed or prosecution
proceeding which may be initiated under this Act, the licensee may, after prior
approval of that Commission, sell his utility to any person who is found eligible
by that Commission for grant of licence.
Vesting of utility in purchaser
- Where the Appropriate Commission revokes under section 19 the licence of any licensee
, the following provisions shall apply, namely:-
- the Appropriate Commission shall invite applications for acquiring the utility of
the licensee whose licence has been revoked and determine which of such applications
should be accepted, primarily on the basis of the highest and best price offered
for the utility;
- the Appropriate Commission may, by notice in writing, require the licensee to sell
his utility and thereupon the licensee shall sell his utility to the person (hereafter
in this section referred to as the “ purchaser” ) whose application has been accepted
by that Commission;
- all the rights, duties, obligations and liabilities of the licensee, on and from
the date of revocation of licence or on and from the date, if earlier, on which
the utility of the licensee is sold to a purchaser, shall absolutely cease except
for any liabilities which have accrued prior to that date;
- the Appropriate Commission may make such interim arrangements in regard to the operation
of the utility as may be considered appropriate including the appointment ofconsidered
appropriate including the appointment of Administrators;
- The Administrator appointed under clause (d) shall exercise such powers and discharge
such functions as the Appropriate Commission may direct.
- Where a utility is sold under sub-section (1), the purchaser shall pay to the licensee
the purchase price of the utility in such manner as may be agreed upon.
- Where the Appropriate Commission issues any notice under subsection (1) requiring
the licensee to sell the utility, it may, by such notice, require the licensee to
deliver the utility, and thereupon the licensee shall deliver on a date specified
in the notice, the utility to the designated purchaser on payment of the purchase
- Where the licensee has delivered the utility referred to in subsection( 3) to the
purchaser but its sale has not been completed by the date fixed in the notice issued
under that sub-section, the Appropriate Commission may, if it deems fit, permit
the intending purchaser to operate and maintain the utility system pending the completion
of the sale.
Where a utility is sold under section 20 or section 24, then, upon completion of
the sale or on the date on which the utility is delivered to the intending purchaser,
as the case may be, whichever is earlier-
Provisions where no purchase takes place
- the utility shall vest in the purchaser or the intending purchaser, as the case
may be, free from any debt, mortgage or similar obligation of the licensee or attaching
to the utility: Provided that any such debt, mortgage or similar obligation shall
attach to the purchase money in substitution for the utility; and
- the rights, powers, authorities, duties and obligations of the licensee under his
licence shall stand transferred to the purchaser and such purchaser shall be deemed
to be the licensee.
Directions to licensees.
- (1) If the utility is not sold in the manner provided under section 20 or section
24, the Appropriate Commission may, to protect the interest of consumers or in public
interest, issue such directions or formulate such scheme as it may deem necessary
for operation of the utility.
- Where no directions are issued or scheme is formulated by the Appropriate Commission
under sub-section (1), the licensee referred to in section 20 or section 24 may
dispose of the utility in such manner as it may deem fit: Provided that, if the
licensee does not dispose of the utility, within a period of six months from the
date of revocation under section 20 or section 24, the Appropriate Commission may
cause the works of the licensee in, under, over, along, or across any street or
public land to be removed and every such street or public land to be reinstated,
and recover the cost of such removal and reinstatement from the licensee.
If the Appropriate Commission is of the opinion that it is necessary or expedient
so to do for maintaining the efficient supply, securing the equitable distribution
of electricity and promoting competition, it may, by order, provide for regulating
supply, distribution, consumption or use thereof.
Suspension of distribution licence and sale of utility.
- If at any time the Appropriate Commission is of the opinion that a distribution
- has persistently failed to maintain uninterrupted supply of electricity conforming
to standards regarding quality of electricity to the consumers; or
- is unable to discharge the functions or perform the duties imposed on it by or under
the provisions of this Act; or
- has persistently defaulted in complying with any direction given by the Appropriate
Commission under this Act; or
- has broken the terms and conditions of licence,
and circumstances exist which render it necessary for it in public interest so to
do, the Appropriate Commission may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, suspend,
for a period not exceeding one year, the licence of the distribution licensee and
appoint an Administrator to discharge the functions of the distribution licensee
in accordance with the terms and conditions of licence:
Provided that before suspending a licence under this section, the Appropriate Commission
shall give a reasonable opportunity to the distribution licensee to make representations
against the proposed suspension of license and shall consider the representations,
if any, of the distrbution licensee.
- Upon suspension of license under sub-section (1) the utilities of the distribution
licensee shall vest in the Administrator for a period not exceeding one year or
up to the date on which such utility is sold in accordance with the provisions contained
in section 20, whichever is later.
- The Appropriate Commission shall, within one year of appointment of the Administrator
under sub-section (1) either revoke the licence in accordance with the provisions
contained in section 19 or revoke suspension of the licence and restore the utility
to the distribution licensee whose licence had been suspended, as the case may be.
- In case where the Appropriate Commission revokes the licence under sub-section (3),
the utility of the distribution licensee shall be sold within a period of one year
from the date of revocation of the licence in accordance with the provisions of
section 20 and the price after deducting the administrative and other expenses on
sale of utilities be remitted to the distribution licensee.